On the State of the Environment In China
The air quality in cities in China had
a overall trend of getting improved, but in 2/3 of the cities, the air
quality did not reach the air quality standard for Grade II. Particulate
was the main pollutant affecting the urban air quality. In some cities,
the sulfur dioxide pollution was severe. Acid rain pollution in south
regions was relatively serious. 90% of the cities in the acid rain control
zones recorded acid rains.
In 2002, of the 343 cities and counties
monitored, 116 cities recorded urban air quality reaching or better than
National Air Quality Standard for Grade II, accounting for 34.1%. Among
these, 11 cities including Haikou, etc., had air quality reaching Grade
I standard. 120 cities had air quality reaching Grade III standard, taking
35% of the total. 107 cities had air quality worse than Grade III, accounting
for 31.2%. As compared with the previous year, the number of cities with
air quality reaching Grade II standard increased slightly, while the number
of cities with air quality worse than Grade III decreased by 2 percent.
The population in cities with air quality
reaching the standards took only 26.3% of the total urban population accounted.
The urban population exposed to the air with quality not reaching the
standards took nearly 3/4 of the total urban population accounted.
Grading of Urban Air Quality in the Country
Percentage Population under Different Air Quality
Air Pollution in Cities of Different Size
Main pollutants in the air
Particulate was the main pollutant affecting
urban air quality. The particulate concentration in 63.2% of the cities
exceeded the national Grade II standard. The particulate pollution in
northern cities was more serious than in the southern cities in general.
The cities having relatively severe particulate pollution were mainly
in North China, Northwest, Northeast, Central plains, and east part of
Sichuan and Chongqing.
22.4% of the cities had sulfur dioxide
exceeding the standard. They were mainly located in Shanxi, Hebei, Guizhou,
Sichuan, Gansu and Chongqing.
In 2002, in all cities monitored, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide reached the national Grade II standard, but its concentration in large cities was relatively high.
Sulfur dioxide pollution in the two control zones
Among 343 cities monitored, there were
64 cities in the sulfur dioxide control zones, while 117 cities were in
the acid rain control zones. The number of cities in two zones with annual
average SO2 concentration reaching Grade II standard accounted for 40.6%
and 79.5% of the total number of
Grading of Particulate Concentration
Grading of SO2 Concentration in Cities
Percentage of Cities with SO2 Reaching the Standard
Standard Reaching Status of SO2 Concentration in Two Control Zones
Air quality status in the key cities
Among the 113 cities approved by the State
Council as the key cities for air pollution prevention
Among the 47 key environmental protection cities, the SO2 concentration in 11 cities as Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Urumchi, Changsha, Guiyang, Lanzhou, Chongqing, Tianjin, Beijing, Shenyang and Nanchang, exceeded the standard. The particulate concentration in 29 cities as Lanzhou, Shijiazhuang, Taiyuan, Shenyang, Xi'an, Beijing, Urumchi, Chongqing, Changsha, Tianjin, Hohehot, and etc., exceeded the standard.
Status of Air Pollution in 47 Key Environmental Protection Cities
① Average PM10 in 2002; ② Average NO2 in 2002.
Integrated Pollution Index in the Key Environmental Protection Cities
In 2002, pH value of the precipitation in 555 cities and counties, monitored in China, ranged between 4.03 and 8.31. Acid rain occurred in 279 cities and counties, accounting for 50.3% of the cities in the statistics. The number of cities and counties with pH value of precipitation equal to or lower than 5.6 was 181, accounting for 32.6% of the cities in the statistics.
As compared to the previous year, the
percentage of cities with annual average pH value of precipitation equal
to or lower than 5.6 across the country remained basically unchanged.
However, the number of cities with annual average pH value of precipitation
lower than 2.8 increased by 2.8 percent. Acid rain was somewhat worsened
in some areas. The number of cities without acid rain increased by 8.5
percent as compared with that in the previous year.
In 2002, the annual average PH value of
precipitation in 109 cities in acid rain control zones ranged between
4.04 and 7.23. The annual average PH of precipitation in 79 of these cities,
accounting for 72.5% of the cities monitored, was equal or lower than
5.6. Acid rain occurred in 101 cities, accounting for 92.7%. The frequency
of acid rain occurrence in 5 cities including Yibin, Shaoxing, Jishou,
Wenzhou and Huaihua, exceeded 90%. No acid rain occured in 8 cities including
Jieyang, Deyang, Hezhou, Heshan, Yunfu, Qujing, Chaohu and Qianjiang.
Percentage of Cities with Different Frequencies of Acid Rain Occurrence
Regional distribution of acid rain
The regional distribution of acid rain
remained basically unchanged. The cities with annual average PH value
of precipitation lower than 5.6 were mainly located to the south of Yangtse
River, east of Qinghai-Tibet plateau and Sichuan basin. In some parts
of northern areas including Yanji, Tumen, Hunchun, Jiaohe in Jilin province,
Fuxin and Gourd Island in Liaoning province, and Weinan in Shannxi province,
the acidity of participation was relatively high.
Sketch Map of Regional Distribution of Acid Rain in China in 2002
Emission of major
pollutants in waste gases
Emission of Major Pollutants in Waste
Gases in China in Recent Years
Measures and Actions
|Arable Land / Land Resources|
|Climate and Natural Disasters|