Atmospheric Environment

In 2001, the urban air quality in the whole country was stable on the whole. The percentages of the cities where the air quality attains the national standards for Grade II, III and worse than Grade III is one third respectively. The acid rain pollution in the south is rather serious, with acid rain in over 90% of the cities in the acid rain control zone.

Urban Air

In the 341 cities being monitored, 114 of them have attained or are better than the national standards for Grade II, accounting for 33.4%. The air quality in ten cities such as Haikou, Sanya and Zhaoqing attained Grade I, while the air quality in 114 of them was at Grade III, accounting for 33.4%. The air quality in 113 was worse than Grade III, accounting for 33.2%. Compared with the previous year, the urban air quality remains unchanged.



Percentage of the Air Quality Grades in 341 Cities in 2001

The particulate remains the key pollutant affecting the air quality in China. The annual concentration of the urban particulate in 64.1% of the cities exceeded Grade II. The annual concentration of the particulate in 101 cities exceeded Grade III, accounting for 29.2% of the cities. The cities with high concentration of particulate are mainly located in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Ningxia and Hebei.



Percentage of Particulate Concentration Grades in Urban Air in 341 Cities


Location of the Particulate Concentration

The cities where the annual concentration of SO2 did not attain national Grade II standards account for 19.4% of the cities for statistics. The cities exceeding national Grade III standards account for 9.7%, with 2% lower than the previous. The cities with serious SO2 pollution are mainly located in Shanxi, Hebei, Guizhou, Chongqing and parts of Gansu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Hubei, Guangxi and Inner Mongolia.


Location of SO2 Concentration

In 2001, the annual average of NO2 concentration in the air of 341 cities attained the Grade II national standards for air quality. The NO2 concentration in Guangzhou, Beijing and Shanghai was comparatively fairly high.

SO2 Pollution in Double-Control Zones

In the 341 cities of the statistics (including county level municipality), 64 of them are located in SO2 Pollution Control Zone and 118 belong to Acid Rain Control Zone. The cities in the Double-Control Zones where the annual concentration of SO2 attained Grade II standards account for 48.4% and 79.7%. Compared with the previous year, the percentage of the cities in the SO2 Pollution Control Zone attaining the standards increased a little bit and the percentage of the cities worse than Grade III reduced by 4.3%.

Urban Air Quality in Key Environmental Protection Cities

In the 47 key environmental protection cities, 19 of them have attained the Grade II standards for urban air quality. Haikou has attained Grade I while 14 of them attained Grade III. Another 14 have exceeded Grade III.

Acid Rain

In 2001, the cities where the annual pH value of the precipitation is under 5.6 were mainly located in north China, south China, mid-China and southwest. In the north, the annual pH value of the precipitation in Tumen of Jilin, Weinan, Tongchuan and Lueyang County of Shaanxi and Tianjin is under 5.6.

In the 274 cities being monitored, there are 101 cities where the pH value of the precipitation is at 4.21~8.04, and the pH value of the annual precipitation is under 5.6 (including 5.6), accounting for 36.9%. There are 161 cities with acid rain, accounting for 58.8%. Compared with the previous year, the percentage of the cities with acid rain has reduced a little bit.

In the 107 cities (cities over prefecture level and the prefectures) located in the Acid Rain Control Zone, there are 78 ones where the pH value ranges at 4.21~7.21 and the pH value of the annual precipitation is under 5.6 (including 5.6), accounting for 72.9% of the cities for the statistics. There is acid rain in the precipitation of 98 cities, accounting for 91.6% of the cities in the Acid Rain Control Zone.

Attainment of SO2 in SO2 Pollution Control Zone


Location of the pH Value of Precipitation in the Whole country in 2001

Discharge Amount of Key Pollutants in Exhaust Emission

In 2001, the discharge amount of SO2 in the exhaust emission in the entire country hit 19.478 million tons. The discharge of the industrial sources hit 15.666 million tons and the discharge of the daily lives 3.812 million tons. The discharge amount of the smoke dust hit 10.591 tons. The amount of the industrial smoke dust discharge is 8.412 million tons and the amount of the daily lives is 2.179 million tons. The amount of the industrial dust is 9.9006 million tons.

Discharge Amount of key Pollutants in Exhaust Emission 
in Recent Years in the Whole Country    
        
                                 Unit: 10 thousand tons

Year\Item  SO2  Smoke Dust  Dust
2001 1947.8   1059.1  990.6
2000 1995.0  1165.4 1092.0
Increase and decrease (%)   -2.4  -9.1 -9.3

Daily Report and Forecast of Air Quality

State Environmental Protection Administration and State Meteorological Agency have jointly carried out air quality forecast in 47 key environmental protection cities in the entire country. From 5 June 2001, the daily report and forecast of the air quality have been released in the new media such as CCTV.

Special Action of Investigating and Punishing Violation of Environmental Laws

In the special action of investigating and punishing the violation of environmental laws, the environmental departments in the whole country have organized 380000 environmental enforcement staff to inspect 140000 enterprises and have inspected and punished 12000 enterprises. There are 1820 enterprises of “Fifteen Small Kinds” that restarted the production being phased out and 1693 enterprises being stopped for pollution treatment. In addition, 410 people have been punished according to the law.

Prevention of the Pollution from the New Vehicles

State Environmental Protection Administration has released two inventories of the vehicles related to over 4000 kinds of vehicles that could not attain the new national emission standards and should therefore be prohibited for production and sale within the deadline. The standards for the heavy load petroleum vehicles have not yet been amended. Euro I standard has been carried out in the whole country. In the meantime, the types of the vehicles attaining the national standards have been released.

Pollution Prevention of Flying Dust

State Environmental Protection Administration and Ministry of Construction have jointly issued the Notice on Efficient Control of Urban Flying Dust Pollution, requesting the people government of the cities to formulate measures of environmental protection concerning the urban flying dust prevention.

Air Pollution Control in Beijing

By October 2001, Beijing has implemented 58 pieces of measures in the fifth, sixth and seventh phases of air pollution prevention. One thousand five hundreds of coal combustion boilers have been transmitted into natural gas; the natural gas consumption in the entire municipality is over 900 million m3; nine million tons of high quality coal with low sulfur have been promoted to be used in the city; and the attainment rate of the vehicles examined on road is 90%. The numbers of the days with the air pollution index attaining Grade II and better than Grade II is over 50% in 2001.

Prohibition of Stalk Burning

In accordance with the requirements of the Notice on Enhancing Environmental Supervision on Nature Conservation, the environmental protection departments at various levels have strengthened the on-site enforcement inspection on the prohibiting the stalk burning in the zones prohibiting stalk burning, especially surrounding the airport, super highway, and along the railways and the high voltage electricity wires. State Environmental Protection Administration has dispatched working group to inspect the prohibition of stalk burning along Beijing  Tianjin super high way, and surrounding Beijing and Tianjin airports

Forbidding of Import of Equipment with CFC as Refrigerating Agent

State Environmental Protection Administration, MOFTEC, State Quality Inspection Administration and State Customs Administration have jointly issued the notice on forbidding the import of the vehicles with CFC as refrigerating agent of the air-conditioners and the import of the air-conditions (including air compressors) with CFC as refrigerating agent, and stipulating the above-mentioned products should be forbidden to be imported from 1 January 2002.