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Constitution of the People's Republic of China (excerpts of envivonment-related articles)

(Adopted at the Fifth Session of the Fifth National People's Congress on December 4, 1982
amended at the First Session of the Seventh National People's Congress on April 12, 1988
and amended for the second time at the First Session of the Eighth National People's Congress on March 29, 1993 and amended for the third time at the Second Session of the Ninth National People's Congress on March 15, 1999)



Article 9 All mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, beaches, and other natural resources are owned by the state, that is, by the whole people, with the exception of the forest, mountains, grasslands and unreclaimed land and beaches that are owned by collectives in accordance with the law.

The state ensures the rational use of natural resources and protects rare animals and plants. Appropriation or damaging natural resources by any organization or individual by whatever means is prohibited. 

Article 10 Land in cities is owned by the state.

Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives except for those portions which belong to the state in accordance with the law; house sites and privately farmed plots of cropland and hilly land are also owned by collectives. The state may, in the public interest, requisition land for its use in accordance with the law.

No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or unlawfully transfer land in other ways. The right to the use of the land may be transferred in accordance with the law. 

All organizations and individuals using land must ensure its rational use.


Aricle 22 The state promotes the development of art and literature, the press, radio and television broadcastion,publishing nad distribution services, ilbrariel, museums, cultural centers and other cultural undertakings that serve the people and socialism, and it sponsors mass cultural activities.

The state protects sites of scenic and historical interest,valuable cultural monuments and relics nad other significant items of China's historical and cultural heritage.


Article 26 The state protects and improves the living environment of the people and the ecological environment. It prevents and controls pollution and other public hazards.

(This English version is for your reference only.In case any discrepancy exists between the Chinese and English context, the Chinese version shall prevail.)

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